Naming

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Naming

Message  LA le Mer 21 Mar - 18:22

> The Viking Answer Lady

NB: Research relies on names found over the years, and are lacking data.

The name was a part of the personality / represented some way the spiritual and intellectual element of whom it named. The meaning of the name was not important, and some name-elements are derived from archaic words that were not understood anymore, but some of them still meant something and may have been taken in consideration.

It could have been after
- a hero or admired one
- the gods (Goð-, "god"; Þór-, "Thórr"; Frey-, "Freyr"; Regin-, "power, the gods"; Ás-, "god"). People who had a name compounded with the name of a god would have langlifis ok heilla, "long life and health", and would not be hurt if cursed by the name of that god.
- the father in some cases, especially if he's dead.
- an uncle a bit more often
- an other relative (a cousin...)
- often a grandparent
- a great grand parent
- very often a (recently) deceased relative, particularly while the child is in utero at the time of their death. The naming after them grants the child inheritance of their qualities, and may even have been seen as a rebirth, transmigration of the soul to the new body, or reincarnation. The child is also given the deceased byname (nickname).

Two other major principles of Germanic name-giving
- Alliteration: the sound at the beginning of one name is repeated in another (the names of the successive kings of the Uppsala dynasty all start with a vowel: Agni, Alrek, Yngvi, Iôrund, Aun, Egil, Óttar, Adils, Eystein, Yngvar, önund, Ingiald, Olaf).
- Variation: forming a new name by changing one element in the name of family members (9th century Norwegian Végeirr's sons: Vébiôrn, Vésteinn, Véþormr, Vémundr, Végestr... or by changing the second element: Abiôrn, Finnbiôrn, Gunnbiôrn, Hallbiôrn, Ketilbiôrn). It's the oldest Germanic practice.

Single-Element Names vs. Compound Names

Old Norse names could at times be made of only one element, usually:
- Male: Egill, Biôrn, Fálki, Úlfr
- Female: Auðr, Bera, Drífa, Finna

Two-element names were more commun and combinations of single-elements; some elements may be used only in first or second positions while some occur in both.
- Male: Þórbrandr (Þórr+brandr), Biôrnólfr (Biôrn+Úlfr), Guðmundr (Guðr+mundr)
- Female: Ragnhildr (Reginn+Hildr), Álfdís (Alf+Dís), Halldóra (Halla+Þórr)

Ex- Simple name Hallr (feminine: Halla) is the first element of many compounds:
- Male: Hallbiôrn, Halldór, Hallfreðr, Hallgeirr, Hallgrímr, Hallkell, Hallormr, Hallsteinn, Hallvarðr, but not with following second compounds: -brandr, -fiðr, -finnr, -gautr, -gestr, - móðr, -oddr, -ólfr, -valdr
- Female: Hallbera, Hallbjôrg, Halldís, Halldóra, Hallfríðr, Hallgerðr, Hallkatla, Hallveig, Hallvôr, but not with following second compounds: -finna, -gríma, -hildr, -ný, -unn

Some elements are more or less used according to gender (exclusively female: -dís, -veig, -ný)


Dernière édition par LA le Mer 21 Mar - 18:25, édité 1 fois

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Patronymics (or Matronymics, very rare)

Message  LA le Mer 21 Mar - 18:23

Patronymics (or Matronymics, very rare)

Name that means Son-of or Daughter-of (Skallagrimson, son of Skallagrim, Hakonardottir, daughter of Hakon). They follow Old Norse grammar.

If the name ends in The ending will change to Sample name in nominative case Genitive+Son Genitive+daughter
-i -a Snorri Snorrason Snorradóttir
-a -u Sturla Sturluson Sturladóttir
-nn -ns Sveinn Sveinsson Sveinsdóttir
-ll -ls Ketill Ketilsson Ketilsdóttir
-rr -rs Geirr Geirson Geirssdóttir
-r -s Grímr Grímsson Grímsdóttir
-ir -is Grettir Grettisson Grettisdóttir
-ar Hálfdan Hálfdanarson Hálfdanardóttir
-ar Auðunn Auðunarson Auðunardóttir
-r -ar Sigurðr Sigurðarson Sigurðardóttir

Mens' names that end in -biörn ("bear") or -örn ("eagle") change form slightly in the genitive, becoming -biarnar and -arnar.

Names ending in -maðr have the genitive form -manns.

Names ending in -ss do not change in the genitive, but in the compound patronymic, one of the "s" is dropped, thus Vigfúss, Vigfússon.

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Diminutifs et Surnoms

Message  LA le Mer 21 Mar - 18:24

Short-form Names
People also used short forms of longer names.

Nicknames

Heiti, uppnefi, or viðrnefni (bynames or nicknames) were rarely used by the person themselves, and almost never to their face. They are descriptive and mostly derogatory in some way; they can be divided in eight categories, which first two types prevail.
1) physical characteristics,
2) habits,
3) temperament,
4) occupation,
5) place of origin,
6) biographical,
7) inherited bynames,
Cool other.

Sometimes adults were given a nickname in a formal ceremony, for example if the new name was the result of some special event or feat of skill or prowess; the newly-nick-named person would be given gifts.

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Name-Giving Ceremonies

Message  LA le Mer 21 Mar - 18:24

In antiquity, placing the child at the breast would signify the child was to be reared, but the naming ceremony reimplaced this one in the Viking Age.
Children with defects or which the family could not afford to rear were exposed. The remaining babies were washed, dressed, and formally named, certainly as a rite of incorporation; once they had been named, they could not be exposed or it would have been seen as murder, and they became a potential heir.

Naming was done by ausa vatni, "to pour water over", it began with the lifting of the child from the floor, then placement in the father's arms (borit ar foður sinum); a sign recalling the Hammer of Þórr, Mankind's Warder, was made over the child, probably invoking his protection. The child then received a name-gift from friends and relatives of the family, and a "tooth-gift" when the they cut their first tooth.

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Liste de noms

Message  LA le Mer 21 Mar - 18:25

- Unnr (wave)
- Auðr (treasure)
- Refr (fox)
- Biörn (bear)
- Drífa (snowdrift)
- Mörd (weasel)
- Úlfr (wolf)
- Geirr (spear)
- Steinn (rock)
- Hrafn (raven)
- Óspakr (Not Wise)
- Ófeigr (Not Cowardly)
- Ljótr (Ugly)
- Þórólfr = Thor + wolf
- Vigdís = battle + goddess

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Re: Naming

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